Stakeholder - SSKE
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The four primary types of stakeholders are customer, provider, authority, and competitor. The partner is also a type of stakeholder. The provider belongs to the service system, while the other stakeholders are parts of the service system ecology. Also, their roles are dynamic; for example, a partner can become a competitor.

A service system consists of various elements, interconnections, attributes, and stakeholders—which can include employees, partners, entrepreneurs, citizens, managers, and many others. These stakeholders interact in a co-productive relationship that creates value, with the principal interactions take place at the interface between the provider and the customer.

Reasoning about multiple stakeholders and their perspectives on resource access is necessary to design new and improved value co-creation mechanisms and governance mechanisms, as well as to design new and improved types of service system entities.


  1. Service Science (Spohrer) (Authors: Jim Spohrer Laura C. Anderson Norman J. Pass Tryg Ager Daniel Gruhl Published In: Journal of Grid Computing Publication Date: 2008)
  2. Service science and service-dominant logic (Authors: Jim Spohrer Laura C. Anderson Norman J. Pass Tryg Ager Published In: Otago Forum 2 –m Academic Papers Publication Date: 2008)
  3. Smart Service Systems and Viable Service Systems: Applying Systems Theory to Service Science (Authors: Sergio Barile Francesco Polese Published In: Journal of Service Science (INFORMS) Publication Date: 2010)
  4. The service system is the basic abstraction of service science (Authors: Paul P. Maglio Stephen L. Vargo Nathan Caswell Jim Spohrer Published In: Proceedings (41): Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences Publication Date: 2009)


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